Islamic Cartography علم الخرائط الإسلامي

Thursday, August 21, 2008

The world map in the muqaddima

more here...

Thursday, August 14, 2008

Maps as political arguments

When visiting one of the cartographic collections in Istanbul some years ago I was told that there is some fear that some Arabs might use Ottoman maps as "proofs" in political conflicts... they pointed specifically to Iraqi use of Ottoman maps in the gulf crisis in the summer of 1990 in order to proove the "Iraqiness" of Kuwait... I don't remember seeing examples of such a thing... But today I came across this article... interesting...

Saturday, July 14, 2007

My first ICHC (Berne’s ICHC2007)

My first International Conference on the History of Cartography (ICHC), which was held in Berne in its 22nd version (ICHC2007), was greatly interesting; after all this was a rare (occurring only once in two years) opportunity to meet some of the most active historians of cartography worldwide…. and I’m doing it for the first time.

I was particularly glad to meet and/or listen to talks by Tony Campbell, Peter Barber, Catherine Delano Smith, Mary Sponberg Pedley, Joaquim Alves Gaspar, Philippe Foret, Zsolt Torok, Chet Van Duzer, Sandra Saenz-Lopez Perez, Matthew Edney, and Angelo Cattaneo. I was hoping to meet or listen to even more of the more-than-60 presenters and the even larger number of participants but the disruption caused by the loss of my luggage made me miss many of them (for a full volume compiling the papers and posters abstracts see here; for a pocket program see here). I was also impressed by the level of organization of our Swiss hosts with a special note to the notable organizational skills of Hans-Uli Feldmann. Also I’d like to give special thanks to the technicians of the conference especially those who had to deal with (as usual) the last-minute changes of my ppt. presentation.

I was really happy with the reception my talk (see summary below) got notably the questions and comments from the audience during and, even, following the session; a discussion that continued without stop including during an unusual Bernese dinner: with laptops over the dinner table.

Finally I would have been even gladder if the panel proposal on a special session on Islamic cartography I submitted would have been accepted. While mine was this time the only paper on the field of Islamic cartography it would have been really interesting if my friends and colleagues Andreas Kaplony, Yossi Rappoport, Iffet Orbay, and Karen Pinto were also there to present their highly valuable research (which unfortunately was not possible partly for time conflicts). I think, as many others, that this field is entitled to have more than one paper in an ICHC. It is fair to assume, however, that perseverance and a good panel proposal (better than the lousy one I did last time) might convince the next conference’s selection committee (Copenhagen’s ICHC2009) to include a special session on Islamic cartography. Let’s hope so!


On a Western Islamic School of Mediterranean Navigational knowledge and Mapmaking in the late medieval period (12th-16th centuries)

The topic of late medieval Mediterranean navigation and mapmaking is usually discussed with no need of mentioning Islamic sources. Obviously one of the reasons is the existing written and cartographic sources on the subject, which are overwhelmingly European. Various trends in the scholarship of Mediterranean and Islamic histories argued that the coasts of the Mediterranean towards the late medieval period were increasingly unknown by a Muslim population that was retracting from the sea; also that such coasts were not mapped by medieval Muslims independently from the European cartographers. A widely shared belief is generated from such representation: a late medieval European Mediterranean.

However, some largely unstudied, though not totally unknown, cartographic sources point to a different story. Even though they are few they provide a great amount of new clues proving that the idea of a late medieval European Mediterranean does not reflect the reality of a more complicated and hybrid sea. A very strong link could be seen in a series of Islamic cartographic sources made by authors from the Western Mediterranean beginning from the 12th century al-Idrisi to the 16th century al-Sharfi. They reflect a school of maritime knowledge that expanded its influence to the eastern Islamic lands by providing the best Muslim sailors and cartographers of the Mediterranean. Also their legacy was one of the sources of the early modern mighty Ottoman navy in the Mediterranean and its cartographic school.

Tuesday, September 05, 2006

Islamic Cartography: A Bibliography of Modern Literature [Letter "B"]

Islamic Cartography: A Bibliography of Modern literature [Letter “B”]

For more information see the introduction to the bibliography. See also list "A".

Babinger, F. "Seyyid Nuh and His Turkish Sailing Book." Imago Mundi 12 (1955): 180-2.
Idem, "Drei Stadtansichten von Konstantinopel, Galata ('Pera') und Skutari aus dem Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts." Denkschriften der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Denkschriften 77, no. 3 (1959): 3-21.
Idem, "Piri Muhi 'l-Din Re'is." In The Encyclopedia of Islam. 2d edition.
Idem, "Eine unbemerkte hollandische Grossansicht von Konstantinopel (um 1665)." Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Gottingen. Philologisch-historische Klasse (1962): 81-90.
Idem, "Zwei Stambuler Gesamtansichten aus den Jahren 1616 and 1642." Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Abhandlungen, 50 (1960): 3-16.

Bacqué-Grammont. Jean Louis. "Un plan Ottoman inédit de Van au XVIIe siècle." Osmanlı Araştırmaları Dergisi, Journal of Ottoman Studies, 2 (1981): 97-122.

Bagrow, Leo. "A Tale from the Bosphorus: Some Impressions from
My Work at Topkapu Saray Library, Summer 1954." Imago Mundi 12 (1955): 25-29.

Baer, Eva. "The Ruler in Cosmic Setting: A Note on Medieval Islamic Iconography." In Essays in Islamic art and architecture: in honor of Katharina Otto-Dorn. Ed. Abbas Daneshvari. Malibu, CA : Undena Publications. 1981:13-19.

Bahadir, Osman. Osmanlılarda bilim. İstanbul: Sarmal, 1996.

Bakıcıoğlu. Ziya. "Ibrahim Hakkı (Erzurumlu)” In Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Ansiklopedisi, 8 volumes, vol. 4: 325-26. Istanbul: Dergāh Yayınları, 1976-1998.

Ball, John. Egypt in the Classical Geographers. Cairo: Government Press, Bulaq, 1942.

Barani. Syed Hasan. “Muslim Researches in Geodesy." In Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume, A.H. 362-A.H. 1362, 1-52. Calcutta: Iran Society, 1951.
Idem, “Al-Biruni and His Magnum Opus al-Qānūn u'l-Mas’ūdī." In al-Qānūn u'l-Mas’ūdī (Canon Masudicus), 3 vols., vol. 1:i-lxxv. Hyderabad: Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau, 1954-56.

Barradas, Lereno. O Sul de Moçambique no Roteiro de Sofala do Piloto Ahmad Ibn Madjid, Coimbra: AECA, 1967.

Barrucand, Marianne. “Les représentations d’architectures dans les manuscrits
Illustrés Ottomans du XVIe siècle à la bibliothèque nationale.” In Uluslararası Mimar Sinan Sempozyumu Bildirileri. Symposium held in Ankara, Turkey, 24-27 October 1988, edited by Azize Aktaş-Yasa, 159-169. Ankara: Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Başkanlığı and Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1996.

Bausani, Alessandro. " L’Italia nel Kitab-ï Bahriyye di Piri Reis." Il Veltro: Rivista della Civilta Italiana, 23 (1979): 173-96.
Idem. “La Sardegna nel Kitâb-i Bahriyye di Piri Reis.” Geografia 2 (1980): 71-79.
Idem. “La costa italiana del Tirreno, da Civitavecchia a Ischia, nel portolano di Piri Reis (1521-1527).” In Rasa’il, in memoria di Umberto Rizzitano Palermo: Samandar, 1983: 53-63.
Idem. “Le coste della penisola salentina nel portolano di Piri Reis.” In Studi in onore di Francesco Gabrieli nel suo ottantesimo compleanno, a cura di Renato Train, Roma: s.n. [Don Bosco], 1984: 53-59.
Idem. “La costa Muggia-Trieste-Venezia nel Portolano (1521-27) di Piri Reis.” In Studi arabo-islamici di onore di Roberto Rubinacci nel suo settantesimo compleanno, a cura di Clelia Sarnelli Cerqua, Napoli: s.n. [Arte Tipografica], 1985 [1988]: 65-69.
Idem. “Venezia e l’Adriatico in un portolano turco.” In Venezia e l’ Oriente. Atti del XXV Corso Internazionale di alta cultura, a cura di Lionello Lanciotti, Firenze : L. S. Olschki, 1987: 339-352.

Baykara, Tuncer, Anadolu’nun Tarihi Cografyasina Giris, (1988).

Baysun, Cavid. "Belgrad." In İslâm ansiklopedisi, 13 vols.; 2:475-85. Istanbul: Milli Egirim, 1940-88.
Beckingham, C.F., “Ibn Hauqal's map of Italy”, In Bosworth, C.E.(ed.), Iran and Islam, in memory of the later Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburg 1971: 73-78.
Beer. Arthur. "The Astronomical Significance of the Zodiac of Qusayr ‘Amra." In Early Muslim Architecture, vol. 1, Umayyads, A.D. 622-T50. by K. A. C. Cresswell, 2d ed., pt. 2. 432-40. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.

Beeston, A. F. L. “Idrisi’s Account of the British Isles” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, XIII (1950), Part 2: 265-280.

Ben-Zaken, Avner. “Political Economy and Scientific Activity in the Ottoman Empire” In The Turks, 6 Vols., Vol.3: Ottomans. Ed. H. C. Güzel, C. C. Oğuz, and O. Karatay. Ankara: Yeni Türkiye Publications, 2002: 776-794.

Berggren, J. L. “A Comparison of Four Analemmas for Determining the Azimuth of the Qibla.” Journal for the History of Arabic Science 4 (1980): 69-80.
Idem, “Al-Biruni on plane maps of the sphere”, Journal for the History of Arabic Science, 6 (1982): 47-112.
Berkes. Niyazi. "İbrahim Mūteferrika." In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed.. 3: 996-98.

Beševliev, Bojan. “Die Nord- und West-Schwarzmeerkyste nach einer osmanischen Karte des 18. Jahrhunderts” Materialia Turcica, 7-8 (1981-1982): 72-112.
Idem. “Die italienische und osmanische Seekartographie der Westküste des Schwarzen Meeres bis 18. Jh.” Bulgaria Pontica, 2 (1988): 666-689.

Bey, Mahmoud. "Le système métrique actuel d'Egypte: Les nilomètres anciens et modernes et les antiques coudées d'Egypte."Journal Asiatique. ser. 7, vol. 1 (1873): 67-110.

Biadene, Susanna (a cura di). Carte da navigar. Portolani e carte nautiche del museo Correr, 1318-1732. Venezia: Marsilio, 1990.

Blachère, R. Extraits des principaux géographes arabes du Moyen Age. Paris-Beirut, 1932.

Blau, O. "Ueber Volksthum und Sprache der Kumanen" In Z.D.M.G., Leipzig, 1875: 556-587.

Boigues, Francisco Poins. “El-Edrisi” In Ensayo Bio-Bibliografico sobre los Historiadores y Géografos arabigo-españoles. Madrid, 1898: 231-240.

Bostan, İdris. “Galata Tersanesi’nin 1527-1528 yılına ait gelir-gider muhasebesi.” Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2 (1986): 25-51.
Idem. “Piri Reis’in Kitab-ı Bahriyye’sinde bulunan tersane-i amire planları.” Sanat Tarihi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1.2 (1988): 67-68.
Idem. “XVI. Asırda Osmanlı tersâneleri ve gemi inşa tezgâhları.” Sadi Bayram (yay.), Mimarbaşı Koca Sinan. Yaşadığı çağ ve eserleri. [İstanbul]: T.C. Başbakanlık Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü, 1988), 2: 125-129.
Idem. Osmanlı bahriye teşkilâtı: XVII. Yüzyılda tersâne-i âmire (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu, 1992).
Idem. “Beylikten İmparatorluğa Osmanlı denizciliği.” In Hasan Celâl Güzel et alii (ed.), Türkler. Ankara: Yeni Türkiye, 2002, 10: 122-128.
Idem. Kürekli ve Yelkenli Osmanlı Gemileri. İstanbul: bilge, 2005.

Bothmer, H.-D. von. "Die Illustrationen des Mi.inchener Qazwini von 1280 A.D." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Munich, 1976.

Brandel, R. A. Om och Ur den Arabiske Geographen Idrīsī. Upsala, 1894.

Brauer, Ralph W. “Boundaries and Frontiers in Medieval Muslim Geography.” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 85:6 (1995).

Bräunlich, Erich. “Zwei türkische Weltkarten aus dem Zeitalter der grossen Entdeckungen.” Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Philologisch-historische Klasse 89.1 (1937): 1-29. [Reprinted in: Islamic Geography, Vol. 22, Mathematical Geography and Cartography, Vol. 12, Reprint of Studies on the Ottoman Cartographers Pīrī Re’īs (d. 1554) and îağğī Aúmad (d. about 1560). Ed. Fuat Sezgin, Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science, Frankfurt am Main, 1992: 259-287]

Bredow, G.G. “Edrisis Weltcharte” Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden (Weimar), 13 (1804): 418-437; 14, (1804): 243-244. [Reprinted in: Islamic Geography, Vol. 5, Studies on al-Idrisi reprinted, first part. Ed. Fuat Sezgin, Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science, Frankfurt am Main, 1992: 32-53]

Brentjes, Sonja. “Western European Travelers in the Ottoman Empire and their Scholarly Endeavors (Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries)” In The Turks, 6 Vols., Vol.3: Ottomans. Ed. H. C. Güzel, C. C. Oğuz, and O. Karatay. Ankara: Yeni Türkiye Publications, 2002: 795-803.
Idem. “«Renegades» and missionaries as minorities in the transfer of knowledge.” In Multicultural science in the Ottoman Empire. Ed. by Ekmelledin Ihsanoglu, Kostas Chatzis and Efthymios Nicolaidis. Turnhout: Brepols, 2003: 63-70.
Idem. “Peiresc’s interests in the Middle East and North Africa in respect to geography and cartography”. Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftgeschichte. Reprint 269. 2004.
Idem. “Mapmaking in Ottoman Istanbul between 1650 and 1750: A Domain of Painters, Calligraphers or Cartographers?” In Frontiers of Ottoman Studies: State, Province, and West. Ed. Colin Imber, Keiko Kiyotaki and Rhoads Murphey. 2 Vols., Vol. 2: 125-156. London-New York: I. B. Tauris, 2005.
Idem. “Revisiting Catalan portolan charts: do they contain elements of Asian provenance?”, forthcoming.
Idem. “Multilingualism in early modern maps”, forthcoming.
Idem. “Old and new identities in fifteenth-century maps”, forthcoming.

Brice, William C. "Early Muslim Sea-Charts." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1 (1977): 53-61.
Idem. "Compasses, Compassi, and Kanabis." Journal of Semitic Studies, 29 (1984): 169-78.

Brice, William, and Imber, Colin. “Turkish charts in the portolan style.” Geographic Journal, 144 (1978): 528-529.

Brice, William, Colin Imber, and Richard Lorch. “The Aegean sea-chart of Mehmed Reis Ibn Menemenli A.D. 1590/1, Seminar on early Islamic science, Monograph No. 2, Manchester: University of Manchester, 1977.
Brice, William, Colin Imber, and Richard Lorch. The Dā’ire-yi Mu‘addel of Seydī ‘Ali Re’īs, Seminar on Early Islamic Science, Monograph No. 1, Manchester: University Of Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society, 1976.

Brieux, Alain. and Francis R. Maddison. Répertoire des facteurs d’astrolabes et de leurs oeuvres: Première partie, Islam. Paris: Centre National des Recherches Scientifiques, in press.
Bruijn. J. T. P. de. "al-Kirmani, Awhad al-Din." In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed., 5: 166-67.

Brummett, Palmira. Ottoman seapower and Levantine diplomacy in the age of discovery. New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Idem, "Imagining the Early Modern Ottoman Space from Piri Reis to World History," in Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman, eds. Exploring the Early Modern Ottoman World, Cambridge U. Press, forthcoming.
Idem, "Ottoman Cartoon Maps: Imagining Space, Identity and Nation in the Istanbul Popular Press, 1908-1911," Colin Imber Festschrift, edited by Eugenia Kermeli and Oktay Özel, Isis Press, Istanbul, forthcoming.

Burski, Hans-Albrecht von. Kemel Re'is. Ein Beitrag zur Geschsichte der türkischen Flotte. Bonn, 1928.

Büyükturğul, Afif. “Türk denizcilerinin Atlas Okyanusu’ndaki harekâtı.” Belleten 181 (1982): 35-61.

Saturday, August 26, 2006

Islamic Cartography: A Bibliography of modern literature [A]

Islamic Cartography: A Bibliography of modern literature

All entries will be posted gradually following the alphabetical order of the authors’ names. For more see this paragraph


'Abd al-Mūlā, Mahmūd. Madrasat Bārdū al-Harbiyyah. Lybia/Tunis, Al-Dār al-'Arabiyyah lil-Kitāb, 1977.
’Abd al-’Alīm (Aleem), Anwar. “Concept of wind, tides, and currents among medieval Arab geographers in the Indian Ocean” Deep Sea Research, Vol. 14, 1967: 459-463.
Idem, “Ahmed Ibn Magid, Arab navigator of the XV century and his contributions to marine sciences” In Proceedings First Intern. Congress Hist. Oceanography, Monaco, 1968: 565 - 580.
Idem, “Arabian Sea” in Encyclopaedia Britannica-Anonym, Periplus maris erythraei in C. Muller Geogr. Graeci Minores, vol. I, 1978.
Idem, Al-Milāúa wa ’Ulūm al-Biúār ’ind al-Arab. Silsilat ’Ālam al-Ma’rifa, No. 13, Kuwait, 1990.

Abdullah, Thabit. “Arab views of northern Europeans in medieval history and geography” In Images of the other: Europe and the Muslim world before 1700. Sūrat al-ākhir: Ūrūbba wa-’l-ālam al-Islāmī qabla 1700. Ed. D.R.Blanks (Cairo Papers in Social Science, 19 ii (1996)) .Cairo: American University in Cairo, 1997, (Cairo Papers in Social Science, 19 ii (1996)): 73-80.

Abeydeera, A. “Taprobane, Ceylan ou Sumatra? Une confusion féconde. ” Archipel, no. 47 (1994): 87-123.

Abrahamowicz, Zigmunt. “Staraya turetskaya karta Ukrainy s planom vzryva Dneprovskikh porogov i ataki turetskogo flora na Kiev.” In Vostochnye istochniki po istorii narodov yugo-vostochnoy i
tsentral'noy Evropy, ed. Anna Stepanovna Tveritinova, 76-96. Moscow: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Institut Vostokovedeniya,1969.

Adnan Adıvar, Abdülhak. La science chez les Turcs Ottomans. Paris: G. P. Maisonneuve, 1939.
Idem, Osmanlı Türklerinde İlim. 2d ed. Istanbul: Maarif, 1943.
Idem, Osmanlı Türklerinde İlim. 4th ed. Istanbul: Remzi Kitabevi, 1982.

Afetinan. Life and Works of Piri Reis: The Oldest Map of America. Trans. Leman Yola and Engin Uzmen. Ankara: Turkish Historical Society, 1975.

Ahmad, Nafis. “Muslim Contributions to Geography during the Middle Ages”, Islamic Culture 17 (1943): 241-263 (I), and Ibid, 18 (1944):167-186 (II).
Idem, Muslim Contribution to Geography. 1947; Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Kashmiri Bazar, 1972.
Idem, Muslims and the Science of Geography. Bangladesh: University Press Limited, 1980.

Ahmad, S. Maqbul. "Al-Mas’ūdī's Contributions to Medieval Arab Geography." Islamic Culture 27 (1953): 61-77.
Idem, India and the Neighbouring Territories in the "Kitab nuzhat al-mushtaq fi'khtiraq al-'afaq" of al-Sharif al-Idrisi. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960.
Idem, "Jughrāfiya." In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed., 2: 575-87.
Idem, "Kharīta." In The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed., 4:1077-83.
Idem, “al-Idrisi." In Dictionary of Scientifc Biography, 16 vols. ed. Charles Coulston Gillispie, 7:7-9. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970-80.
Idem, “Cartography of al-Sharīf al-Idrīsī” In The History of Cartography, Vol.2, Book 1, Cartography in the traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies. Ed. J.B. Harley and David Woodward, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago & London, 1992: 156-174.
Idem, A history of Arab-Islamic geography (9th-16th century A.D.). Amman: Āl al-Bayt University, 1995
Idem, “Geodesy, geology and mineralogy. Geography and cartography” In History of civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. 4: The age of achievement: A.D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century.Part 2: The achievements. Ed. C.E.Bosworth and the late M.S.Asimov. Paris: UNESCO, 2000:205-221

Ahmad, Shamima. The Paris copy of the Mediterranean sea-atlas of Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Sharfi of Sfax, 958/1551. Unpublished M.A. thesis. Victoria University of Manchester. 1978.

AK, Mahmut. "Menâzırü'l-avâlim ve Kaynağı Takvîmü'l-büldân", Prof. Dr. Bekir Kütükoğlu'na Armağan, İstanbul 1991: 101-120.
Idem, “Coğrafya. (Osmanlılar Dönemi).” TÜRKİYE DİYANET VAKFI İSLÂM ANSİKLOPEDİSİ VIII (İstanbul 1993): 62-66.
Idem, "Osmanlı Coğrafyasında İki Yer Adı (Bahr-i Kulzüm / Kurzüm) Üzerine", İlmî Araştırmalar, II (İstanbul 1996): 7-12.
Idem, “Osmanlı Coğrafyası” (Türkçe ve İng.), Türk Dünyası Kültür Atlası. Osmanlı Dönemi, I (İstanbul 1999):138-163.
Idem, "İslâm Coğrafyacılarına Göre Trabzon", Trabzon Tarihi Sempozyumu, 6-8 Kasım 1998, Bildiriler, Trabzon 1999: 23-34.
Idem, “Hind Donanması Kaptanı ve Bahriye Müellifi Pirî Reis” Osmanlı, VIII (Ankara 1999): 372-377.
Idem, “Hind donanması kaptanı ve Bahriye müellifi Pirî Reis (Gelibolu, 1470? – Mısır, 1554).” Yeni Türkiye 33 (2000): 659-664.
Idem, "Bartınlı İbrahim Hamdi ve Atlas'ı", Türk Tarih Kurumu Belleten, LXIV/239 (2000): 69-87.
Idem, “Menâzırü’l-Avâlim”, Akademik Araştırmalar Dergisi, II/4-5 (2000): 291-306.
Idem, “Pîrî Reis (1470?-1554).” In Hasan Celâl Güzel et alii (ed.), Türkler, Ankara: Yeni Türkiye, 2002, 11: 313-320.
Idem, “The Rumelian Impressions of an Ottoman Traveler”, Second International Symposium on Islamic Civilisation in the Balkans, Trana, Albania, 4-7 December 2003, Abstracts, İstanbul 2003: 2.
Idem, “Leke-nâme ve Panzehir Risalesi”, İÜEF Tarih Dergisi, Sayı 39, İstanbul 2004: 97-124.
Idem, “Osmanlı Coğrafya Çalışmaları”, Türkiye Araştırmaları Literatür Dergisi, II/4 (Türk Bilim Tarihi), İstanbul 2004: 163-211.

Akalar, Zeren. "Tarihi konularda Türk minyatürieri.'" Sanat Tarihi Yıllığı 3 (1970): 151-66.

Akbayar, Nuri. Osmanlı yer adları sözlüğü, İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı, 2001.

Aksel, Malik. Türklerde Dinî Resimler, Istanbul: Elif Kitabevi, 1967.

Aktepe, Münir. "İstanbul Fenerbahçesi hakkında bazi bilgiler." Tarih Dergisi, no.32 (March 1979): 349-72.

Ala'i, Cyrus. "Oriental medieval maps of the Persian Gulf." The Map Collector 60 (Autumn 1992): 2-8.
Idem, "Persia or Iran? What do maps say?." The Map Collector 70 (Spring 1995): 12-17.
Idem, "Mapping Persia: A brief introduction." IMCoS Journal 94 (Autumn 2003): 5-22.
Idem, "The Traditional Cartography of Islamic Classical Societies." The Portolan 54 (Fall 2002): 9-19.
Idem, "A New Home for an Old Map." Mercator's World 2,3 (1997 May/June): 62-63.

Albuquerque, Luís de. 0 livro de marinharia de Andrei Pires. Agrupamento de Estudos de Cartografia Antiga, Secção de Coimbra, vol. 1. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, 1963.
Idem, "Quelques commentaires sur la navigation orientale à l'époque de Vasco da Gama."Arquivos do Centro Cultural Português 4 (1972): 490-500.
Idem, A Náutica e a Ciência em Portugal. Notas sobre as Navegações, Lisboa: Gradiva, 1989.
Idem, “O “Corpo” Roteirístico Português,” In Dúvidas e Certezas na História dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, vol. II, Lisboa: Vega, 1991, 75-92.

Albuquerque, Luís de; and J. Lopes Tavares. Algumas observações sobre o planisfério "Cantino," 1502. Agrupamento de Estudos de Cartografia Antiga. Série Separata, Secção de Coimbra, vol. 21. Coimbra: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, 1967.

Ali Cevad: ’Alī Cevād. Memālik-i ’Osmāniyyeniñ tārīú ve coġrafya luġātı, 3 c. Der-sa’ādet: Mahmūd Bey Matba’ası & –asbār Matba’ası, 1313-4 [1896-7].

Ali, Salah Salam. “Arabic reference to Plato's lost Atlantis” Islamic Quarterly, vol. 43, (1999), no. iv: 259-278.

Allibert, C. “Une description turque de l’Océan indien au XVe siècle. L’Océan indien Occidental dans le Kitab-i Bahriye de Piri Reis (1521)" Etudes Océan Indien, X,1988 : 9-51.
I dem, “Wakwak: végétal, minéral ou humain? Reconsidération du problème" Études Océan Indien, no. 12 (1991): 171-189.

Alibhai, Mohamed Abualy. “Abū Ya’qūb al-Sijistānī and 'Kitāb Sullam al-Najāt': A Study in Islamic Neoplatonism." Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1983.

Almagia, Roberto. "Il mappamondo di Piri Reis e la carta di Colombo del 1498." Bollettino della Reale Società Geografica Italiana, 71 (1934): 442-49.

Alpagut, A. Haydar. Marmara'da Türkler. Istanbul, 1941.

Alpagut, Haydar and Fevzi Kurtoglu. Introduction to Piri Reis, Kitāb-i Bahriye. [facsimile of Süleymaniye Library, MS Ayasofya 2612]. Istanbul: Devlet Basımevi, 1935.

Amara, Allaoua et Nef, Anliese. “Al-Idrīsī et les Hammūdides de Sicile: nouvelles données biographiques sur l'auteur du Livre de Roger” Arabica, vol. 48, (2001) no. I :121-127.

Amari, Michele. “Il Libro di Re Ruggiero ossia la Geografia di Edrisis” Bollettino della Societa Geografica Italiana (Firenze) 7. 1872: 1-24. [Reprinted in: Islamic Geography, Vol. 5, Studies on al-Idrisi reprinted, first part. Ed. Fuat Sezgin, Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science, Frankfurt am Main, 1992: 112-135]

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Islamic Cartography: A Bibliography of modern literature

While I am writing my dissertation (“The depiction of the Mediterranean in late Islamic cartography: from the 13th to the 16th centuries”) I started compiling all bibliographic entries that are directly related to the topics of Islamic cartography. Then I thought it would be quite helpful to share the list of the “modern literature” on the subject with whoever interested in Islamic cartography. In fact I realized since I was preparing my PhD proposal how scarce the bibliography of modern literature of Islamic cartography is. One of the indications was the presence of many studies that touches only lightly on the subject and, yet, they would be considered as part of such “modern literature”. Therefore I went through the process of selecting which “modern literature” really focuses on the subject of Islamic cartography and which is not. Another reason for compiling this database is obviously its absence whereas we have detailed bibliographic indexes in other fields, especially “western” cartography including in the web. The case of the bibliographic databases provided through Maphist is filling an enormous gap in that sense. Still we find only very few studies relevant to Islamic cartography.

Many of the selected modern studies focus only on cartography. There are some studies, however, focusing on Islamic geography, which are included because of their high relevance to Islamic cartography. Obviously in geographic-cartographic works (really “atlases” as Konrad Miller once described them) like al-Idrisi’s Nuzhat al-Mustaq, studies of the geographic descriptions are highly relevant for the study of the cartographic representations accompanying them. Studies on Islamic art are included only if they deal directly with cartographic representations. This not a bibliography of Islamic astronomy; the most detailed bibliographies in this field are provided in David King’s works notably his 1999 World-Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca; and his 2004 In Synchrony with the Heavens.

This is just an individual endeavor and it could never accomplish its goals without corrections and additions by fellow colleagues working in the field. That is why I am posting it in my “Islamic Cartography” blog so that it would not be only available to the public but it would be subject to additions and corrections by whoever willing to do so (by either posting in the comment sections or sending an email to: or Therefore I call for everyone to contribute to this modest initiative. Because it is an individual endeavor the entries will be posted gradually following the alphabetical order of the authors’ names. Obviously the pace of the posts will depend on my ability to compromise between writing my dissertation and compiling bibliographical entries, which, I am afraid, are not the same thing!

Finally this bibliographic inquiry is based on my personal encounter with many entries. But it could never be made without precedent compilations notably the bibliographical index of The History of Cartography, Vol. 2, Book. 1. Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies (1992). I am also indebt to later, more updated works including the bibliographies of:

Ebel, Kathryn Ann. City Views, Imperial Visions: Cartography and the Visual Culture of Urban Space in the Ottoman Empire, 1453-1603. Unpublished PhD Thesis. The University of Texas at Austin. 2002.

Loupis, Dimitros. Diffusion of Skill in the Mediterranean World. Ottoman Navigational Technology during the 16th Century Seen through Sailing-Directions Manuals. Unpublished M.A. Thesis. Bilkent University. 2004.

Orbay, Iffet. Istanbul Viewed: The Representation of the City in Ottoman Maps of the Sixteenth Century and Seventeenth Centuries. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2001.

Pinto, Karen, C. Ways of Seeing.3: Scenarios of the World in the Medieval Islamic Cartographic Imagination. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Columbia University. 2002.

For the first post, which lists studies of authors whose last names begin with the letter (A), see: this link (

Friday, August 25, 2006

Links to Photos of Islamic Cartography

Even though I have in my possession many photos of Islamic maps (single and in books/atlases) especially in relation to the topic of my PhD dissertation (“The depiction of the Mediterranean in late Islamic cartography: from the 13th to the 16th centuries”), which I have collected from various libraries worldwide, I would not be able to publish them (digitally or otherwise) without explicit permission from the original holders. And I am saving that for the future that is, hopefully, the publication of my dissertation.
But because a blog is a great location for photographs of a-so-visual-topic such as cartography I will be trying to include as many links as possible to Islamic maps; I will be updating them as much as possible, though I am not seeing many websites that have such photos.

The major current resource is the great digital (not-so-well-known) library of the Bibliotheque Nationale de France (BNF), which holds one of the biggest collections of maps and notably Islamic maps. Mandragore is the right place for good resolution images of some of the most important Islamic maps.

PHOTOS of AL-IDRISI'S Nuzhat al-Mushtaq in the BNF, which is thought to be the “oldest” existing copy (early 14th century, that is after more than a century of his death); type in the entry “Cote” ‘Arabe 2221’, then hit “rechercher”, then “images”.

PHOTOS of AL-SHARFI'S Atlas, an autographed copy in the BNF; type in the entry “Cote” ‘Arabe 2278’, then hit “rechercher”, then “images”.

PHOTOS of Katib Chalabi's Jihan Nama in the BNF; type in the entry “Cote”, ‘Supplément turc 215’, then hit “rechercher”, then “images”.

I have included photographs of Islamic astronomy too.
PHOTOS of AL-SUFI'S Suwar al-Kawakib al-Thabita in BNF; there are 8 copies; type in “Cote” the following cote numbers each time you search for a manuscript: ‘Arabe 2488’, ‘Arabe 2489’, ‘Arabe 2490’, ‘Arabe 2491’, ‘Arabe 2492’, ‘Arabe 4670’, ‘Supplément persan 1551’, and ‘Supplément persan 2021’. Then hit “rechercher”, then “images”.

There is a world map reconstructed by Konrad Miller out of the 70 sectional maps of al-Idrisi, in the website of the British library.

Wednesday, August 23, 2006

A blog on Islamic Cartography

I am creating this blog as an outlet for my dissertation, in the writing process, titled: "The depiction of the Mediterranean in late Islamic cartography: from the 13th to the 16th century".